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Tok Glosa

Long Wikipedia
Templet:Infobokis Tokples/
Tok Glosa
Glosa
Created by Ronald Clark na Wendy Ashby, ol i wokim long tok bilong Lancelot Hogben
Setting and usage Toktok man i mekim
Total spikas
Category (purpose) toktok man i mekim
Category (sources) Interglossa
Ol kod bilong tokples
ISO 639-3 None

Tok Glosa em wanpela kain olsem tok-ples ikam long Interglossa. Buk bilong Tok Glosa i kamap long yia 1978. Nem blong tokples em i kamap long rup bilong Graik, "glossa", i stap tokautim "tongue" o "language".

Bilong olsem tokples konstruktem, Tok Glosa i no gat kaikai long tokples, na spelin i holim tru tru na i fonetik olsem. Olsem tokples konstruktem, i no gat infleksen, na tok i stap long diksenari for oltaim, no gat wanem olsem funksen em i stap long toksen. Olsem i no klia long konteks, gramatikal funksen em i save daunim long smolpela wod na long yusim orda bilong wod (syntax). Olsem wanpela tokples a posteriori, Tok Glosa i tekim olsem wokabulari long Tok Gris na Tok Latin rut, yumi saveim dispela olsem internesnal olsem yusim bilong olgeta long sains.

Histori[senisim | edit source]

Tok Glosa i bihainim draif bilong tokples Interglossa em saientis Lancelot Hogben i bin wokim long taim bilong Wol Woa 2 long Aberdeen. Long 1943 ol i wokim Interglossa olsem wanpela rait bilong ol buk bilong helpim ol man.

Ron Clark i bin lukim wanpela buk bilong Interglossa: em wanpela buk bilong helpim ol man long yia 1960. Bihain em i bungim Profesa Hogben na em i tingting long kamapim dispela tok ples. Ol i wok strong long stretim gut dispela tok, na bai ol man i ken mekim wok long en long olgeta kain rot bilong toktok. Wendy Ashby i kam insait long dispela wok long 1972. Taim Hogben i dai long 1975, ol i bin toktok pinis long planti senis. Hogben na Clark i wanbel olsem tokples i mas i gat wanpela pasin bilong raitim ol tok (olsem: wan wan leta i makim wanpela krai). Dispela i makim olsem long tok Grik ol i mas raitim CH, TH na PH olsem K, T na F.

Bihain Ron Clark na Wendy Ashby i kamapim sampela senis moa, na ol i givim nupela nem Tok Glosa long tokples, na long dispela rot ol i kamapim wanpela nupela tokples bilong helpim tokples.

I go inap long 1979, Ashby na Clark i traim wok bilong Tok Glosa long ol volantia long taun ol i stap long en. Long dispela taim, ol i kamapim na stretim ol tok bilong ol tok Hibru na sampela tok bilong ol sentens. Taim ol i wokim namba wan dikseneri bilong Tok Glosa, ol i go sindaun long narapela taun.

Kirap long 1987, GEO (Glosa Education Organisation) em wanpela oganaisesen bilong helpim ol man, em i bin strongim wok bilong skulim ol man long tok ples Tok Glosa olsem namba tu tok ples long ol skul long olgeta hap bilong graun.

Paul O. i bin wokim dispela websait. Bartlett long 1996, na long nau Marcel Springer i bosim. Em i kamapim Tok Glosa Intanet Dikseneri (Glosa Inter-reti Diktionaria), na tu, em i kamapim wanpela kos bilong kisim save long ol tok bilong Baibel, na ol narapela buk samting. Wanpela Wiki long Tok Glosa i bin kamap long 2021.

Olsem dispela[senisim | edit source]

Olsem wanpela tokples, Tok Glosa i save olsem yumi no ken usum nem blong tok bai yumi tokim olsem wanpela narating. Olsem wanpela tokples analitik, Tok Glosa i no gat infleksan long toktok bilong iumi, olsem namba blong yumi i no senis long taim o saed blong iumi.

Olsem wanpela tokples analitik, Tok Glosa i gat namba wan stail long saed blong toktok – subjek, verp, objek. "Adjectiv" i kaps long en blong naraotem "noun" na "verb" i kaps long taim bilong tenz na "adverb".

Manmeri i ting olsem Tok Glosa i lukluk olsem Tok Inglis na Tok Sainis long saed blong olsem wanpela tokples analitik. Liklik samting tu, olsem wanpela tokples asistensia, Lingua sistemfrater (Frater), i gat samting tupela samting em i lukluk olsem Tok Glosa. I gat planti samting wok bai i bin wokim long samting tokples ia na bai i gat wanpela wok bilong sintaksis i lain long narapela hap.

Tok Glosa i ritim olsem wanpela tokples Inglis, wetem Laen alfabet, i no gat litim tupela leta o kainkain lekta. Sapos yumi save tokim Inglis, yumi save tokim Tok Glosa tu.

Nogat planti tok bilong olsem, Tok Glosa i yusim samting bikpela nem bilong Latin na Greek. Em i tokbok long yumi olsem wanpela tokples a posteriori.

Interglossa bilong Hogben i bin mekim sampela lain bilong Basic English, na tu Tok Glosa em i stap wokim olsem Tok Inglis. Interglossa i wokim long olsem wanpela tokples bilong "verboids" o "verbal operators", liklikpela namba blong 18, na tu Tok Glosa i gat olsem wanpela kain bilong tokples long tokim sampela wok olsem sampela namba em i nogat.

Grama[senisim | edit source]

Spelin na pronansesyon[senisim | edit source]

Tok Glosa spelin emi kamap yet i stap long olsem regula na fonetik: wan spelin emi stap representim wan samting bilong toktok, na wan samting bilong toktok emi stap representim wan spelin. Olsem wan 'solo' eksepsen, SC emi stap representim saund ʃ (olsem "sh" long "short"), evri leta stap representim wan saund, na long bekaut long saund, emi stap representim wan leta. Tok Glosa i ritim long Latin letas. Alphabet emi i inkludim ol dispela letas (na digraf), na tu em olsem kapitel leta:

Alphabet blong Tok Glosa (na digraf 'sc'):
Letas a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x z (sc)
Fonim a b t͡ʃ d e f g h i j k l m n o p kw r s t u v w ks z ʃ

Tok Glosa i no save mekim yusim olsem narapela tokples blong helpim, Q na X leta emi i usim. C i mekim saund blong 'ch' long 'church'. Letas SC emi i stap representim 'sh' saund long 'short' - hemi i wanigat digraf nomo. Olsem long planti tokples, J i mekim 'y' saund yu save faindim long wokabaut olsem 'yell' o 'yak'. G na S i stap "hard" olsem (olsem long wod blong 'goat' o 'hiss/snake'). R i mas stap trilled o "tapped" (toktokman i liklik tasol i tupim toktokman long tupela lupela i stap long raitim mous), i no ken stap mekim olsem uvularized.

Wanpraktis blong toktokim N bifo wan velar saund (g o k) olsem ŋ emi i no wanpela prefarem, tasol, i usim planti taim blong mekim tingting blong tokples i simplifai. X emi save mekim saund 'z' long stat blong wod, tasol hemi i no prefarem.

Sapos wan nem blong foren i no save usim olsem letas blong Tok Glosa blong mekim olsem spelin blong nem i stap bifo."

Ol klas bilong tok[senisim | edit source]

Tok Glosa i inkludim tupla bikpela grup blong wod:

Primitives[senisim | edit source]

Primitives em i liklik nambar blong wod we i stap long olsem dispela bikpela tokples - em i laikim olsem preposisen na conjunctions, olsem: de [bilong], e [na], pre [bifo], supra [aninit long; antap long], sub [anit long; antap long; loa; daon; samting liklik].

Substantives (naem wod)[senisim | edit source]

Substantives i grup blong wod we i mas representim sampla bikpla samting, heve, na despela (tasol em i mas kisim tumas nupela wok) we i stap long wanpela tokples, olsem: via [rot], kurso [rani], hedo [hap], vide [lukim], celera [wokim gutpela], tako [wik, kwik, gutpela, sik, antapim rait, spinim wok, bisi, rapim, raipiditi, raipid, hap; gat hap; sanap hap; spas]; oku [ai]. Tingting long dispela em i mas save olsem olgeta samting i gat bikpela namba blong mekim dispela wod i gat planti kainkain sain blong yusim, depend long em i stap long wanem kain kalabus (verb, adjektiv, na tokpisin). Exempli gratia: "oku" ino save tok we i nambawan tasol em i save tokim olsem "ai", "optikal", "lukim wantaim ai", "lukim", "pikim wanem samting wantaim ai", o "kamap long narapela manmeri."

Fres[senisim | edit source]

Fres i bikpela unit blong tokples, we i save mekim sain blong tingting long Tok Glosa. Ol fres i folem Subjek–Verp–(Obyek) orda na noun fres i "substantive final," we i mekim em i stat wantaim wod we i liklik important, na em i save gat olsem wanem moa wod stap long olsem wok bung wantaim em, na em i kisim namba wantaim em long las.

Pasin bilong toktok[senisim | edit source]

Tok Glosa wod i save kamap olsem bikpela namba bilong peim part long toktok. Olsem namba bilong peim part, em i wanpela rol em i plei long wan toktok, na em ino wanpela wok bungim propati bilong wan wod.

Pronoun bilong yugeta[senisim | edit source]

Pronoun bilong yugeta
Man Tok Inglis Tok Glosa Tok Inglis Tok Glosa
1 I, me mi we, us na
2 you (s.) tu you (pl.) vi
3 she, her fe they,
them
mu
he, him an
it id
he/she/one pe

Wabag bilong mekim[senisim | edit source]

Olsem wanpela tok inap long wokim ol wabag, depend long we i stap long tokples (long hap bilong manmeri).

Eksampel Bilong Ol Tok Bilong Tok Inglis
Tense Prior Word Tekts long Tok Glosa Inglish Transleshan
Infinitive - Mi volu lekto u bibli. Mi laik ritim dispela buk.
Simple Past pa Mi pa lekto u bibli. Mi bin ridim buk.
Imperfect pa du Mi pa du lekto u bibli. Mi bin ridim buk.
Past Participle ge- U ge-lekto bibli Buk yu bin ritim
Simple Present (nu) Mi (nu) lekto u bibli. Mi ritim buk.
Continuous Present du Mi du lekto u bibli. Mi bungim buk.
Present Perfect nu pa Mi nu pa lekto u bibli. Mi ritim pinis.
Future-in-Present nu fu Mi nu fu lekto u bibli. Mi laik ritim buk.
Future-in-Past pa fu Mi pa fu lekto u bibli. I was about to read the book / I was going to read the book.
Simple Future fu Mi fu lekto u bibli. I shall/will read the book.
Future Perfect fu pa Mi fu pa lekto u bibli. I shall/will have read the book (by tomorrow).
Conditional sio Mi sio lekto u bibli... I would read the book...
Imperative -! Lekto! Read!
Negative ne Mi ne lekto u bibli. Mi no bin ritim dispela buk.
Interrogative qe Qe mi lekto u bibli? Mi ritim dispela buk? / Mi ritim buk?
Passive gene U bibli gene lekto ex mi. The book is/gets read by me.

Long ples ya "prior word" i wokim olsem wanpela wod i stap wantaimim long fes bilong wabag o klous long mekim wabag i soim wanpela tens. Sampela eg i em:

Bilong so mitim olsem wanpela wod bipo long wabag i stap long pem past tense, yu ken addim "pa" wantaim wod bipo bipo long wabag.

Bilong so soim olsem wanpela wod bipo long wabag i stap long futur tense, yu ken addim "fu" wantaim wod bipo bipo long wabag.

Bilong so mekim olsem wanpela wod bipo long wabag i stap long kandesnel, yu ken addim "sio" wantaim wod bipo bipo long wabag.

Adjektiv[senisim | edit source]

Adjektiv, olsem olgeta tok ples, ino ken senis long fitim tense, nemba, jenis, formeliti, o sapos. Em i stap bifoa long wonem em i senisim. Tasol, long taim tasol adjektiv i stap long wanpela ples long senisim em, em i gat natingap long meaning em i gat.

  • Mi fu lekto mo bibli – Mi bai ridim wan buk.
  • Mi fu lekto bibli mo – Mi bai ridim buk nambawan.

Long Tok Pisin, sapos man i laik mekim wanpela wod i gat 'oposait', em i ken yusim 'no-' olsem wanpela prefiks wantaimim long adjektiv. Displa wokabaut i semak wantaim wanpela prefiks 'mal-' long Esperanto em i senisim olsem wod i gat samting taem, na disla i mekim wod i gat toktok long 'not beautiful'. Em i semak long samting olsem 'in-' o 'un-' long tok Inglis.

  • kali – liklik wara, naispela, naispela wara
  • no-kali – nogut, nogud
  • termo – het, hat
  • meso-termo – wara, liklik wara
  • no-termo – kol

Konjunksen[senisim | edit source]

  • akorda-co – stretim olsem
  • alo – o
  • alo...alo – o...o
  • alora – olsem na...
  • anti-co – tasol
  • e – na
  • fini-co – laspela taim
  • hetero-co – otaim
  • jam – pinis
  • kaso – stori.../tasol...
  • ko-co – tu
  • klu – bikos...
  • ni....ni – no...no
  • pene – sapos em inap
  • po-co – bihainim olsem
  • posi – posibil
  • plus-co – na tu
  • qasi – olsem...
  • sed – nogat
  • si ne... – sapos no...
  • vice – long ples bilong

Wanpela samting bilong toktok[senisim | edit source]

Toktok bilong kamapim namba tu[senisim | edit source]

Fo kamapim wanpela samting wod bilong kamapim namba tu long Tok Glosa, yu onli mas kombainim olgeta wod we i bin stap. Olsem wanem eg., yu no mas gat nating spesol o afe blong kamapim wanpela samting wod, na olgeta wod i stap olsem oli bin.

  • "pe" - person (tok ples bilong persona)
  • "an" - man (tok ples bilong andros)
  • "fe" - meri (tok ples bilong femina)
  • "do" - haus (tok ples bilong domo, i.e. "haus" or "hausman")
  • "lo" - ples, hap (tok ples bilong loko, i.e. "ples" or "hap bilong")

Olsem na, wanpela student i stude-pe (wanem i save studi), wanpela man student i stude-an, wanpela meri student i stude-fe na wanpela haus o building we ol studen i save studi (skul, kolij, na olsem) i stude-do. Sapos tu, wanpela ospital i pato-do (husat i kam long wokim bilong sik), literalmaning em i wanpela haus/building long ol sik.

Mius i save kamapim kaikai long noun-compounding tu:

  • Evening - vespera
  • Kaikai - vora
  • Dina, supa - vespera-vora.

Wod deraivisen[senisim | edit source]

Genarali, ol kirapim rulis em i aplikim long bikpla wok long mekim nupla toksave long Tok Glosa.[1] Olgeta bikpla wod i stap strongpela (tasol ol i save kukim olsem spesifikasion prefiks) i stap karamapim (olsem "an", "fe", o "pe").

Indefinit wod bai stap olsem oli bin (ad, de, si, kata).

Refrens[senisim | edit source]

Lukim tu[senisim | edit source]