Novial

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Novial
novial
Flag of Novial.svg
Created by Otto Jespersen
Setting and usage intanesenel helpim toktok
Total spikas
Category (purpose) toktok man i mekim
Category (sources) Ol tok Roman na ol tok Siamanik; tu Interlingue na Ido
Ol kod bilong tokples
ISO 639-3 nov
Linguasphere 51-AAB-dc

Novial em i wanpela toktok. Dispela toktok i kamap long Otto Jespersen long yia 1928.

Nem[senisim | edit source]

Novial = nov (nupela) + IAL (International Auxiliary Language, intanesenel helpim toktok).

Histri[senisim | edit source]

Novial ol i bin kamap long buk bilong Otto Jespersen An International Language long yia 1928. Em i bin senis long yia 1930 long buk Novial Lexike.

Long yia 1934, Otto Jespersen i bin toktok long narapela senis long Novial: nem blong em i bin Novial Plubonisat.

Toktok i bin dai long yia 1943 taim Otto Jespersen indai .

Long 1935 na 1939, Valter Ahlstedt i bin rait long Novialiste, opisal megesin long toktok. Long yia 1937 em i bin mekim komisin long nem Lingual Jurie del Novialistes long mekim Novial moa gut. Nupela Novial i klostu long Interlingue. Tasol, em i bin senis long Interlingua. Dispela i bin pinis long Novial.

Long tenpela yia 1990, sampela pipol i bin painimaut em.

Ol leta na ponetikis[senisim | edit source]

Novial A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y
Ponetikis /a/ /b/ /d/ /e/~/ɛ/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /dʒ/, /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /k/ /r/ /s/, /z/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /w/, /u/, /v/ /ks/ /j/

Grama[senisim | edit source]

Grama blong Novial em i isi.

Naun[senisim | edit source]

Ol noun i pinis long -e: hunde (dok).

Plural blong naun i long -s: hundes (ol dok).

Ajetiv[senisim | edit source]

Ajetiv i pinis long -i: beli (naispela).

Vab[senisim | edit source]

Grama Tok Inglis Novial Tok Pisin
Infinitive to protect protekte lukaut
Present I protect me protekte mi lukaut
Present Perfect I have protected me ha protekte mi lukaut pinis
Simple Past I protected me did protekte mi bin lukaut
Past Perfect I had protected me had protekte mi lukaut pinis
Future I shall protect o I will protect me sal protekte mi bai lukaut
Future Perfect I shall have protected o I will have protected me sal ha protekte
Future In The Past I was going to protect me saled protekte
Conditional I would protect me vud protekte
Conditional Perfect I would have protected me vud ha protekte
First Imperative Let me protect! Let me protekte!
Second Imperative protect! protekte!

Pronaun[senisim | edit source]

Singular Plural
mi me yumi, mipela nus
yu vu yupela vus
em le, la, lo ol les, las, los
em (samting) lu, lum lus

Litorasa[senisim | edit source]

Novial i nogat litorasa.

Ol buk long Novial:

  • Li Empereren novi vestes[1]
  • Li Sorsiere de Oz[2][3]

Ol referens[senisim | edit source]

Ol buk long Novial[senisim | edit source]

  • Auerbach, Siegfried. 1930. Pri nommediati derivatione in li internacional lingues en A Grammatical Miscellany to Otto Jespersen (on his seventiehn birthday) Levin + Munksgaard (Copenhague) / George Allen and Unwin (London).
  • *Jacob, Henry. 1943. Otto Jespersen. His Work for an International Auxiliary Language. International Language (Ido) Society of Great Britain. [1] (en inglés)
  • Jacob, Henry. 1947. Chapter IV Novial (1928) by Otto Jespersen en A Planned Auxiliary Language. [2] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1928. An International Language. Allen and Unwin, London. [3] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1930. Novial Lexique. Carl Winter's. Heidelberg. [4] (en inglés)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1934. Plubonisat novial, en Novialiste N° 1. [5] (en novial)
  • Jespersen, Otto. 1937. Pri reformes in novial, en Novialiste N° 18 diciembre de 1937. [6] (en novial)

Toksave long Intanet[senisim | edit source]

Wikipedia
Lukim Wikipedia long Novial Wanpela Wikipedia long dispela tokples istap.